Dynasty XI of Babylon (Neo-Babylonian)
|Nabu-apla-usur(Nabopolassar)||626 – 605 BC||Took control of Babylonia from Sinsharishkun of Assyria, ejected Assyrian armies from Babylonia in 616 BC. Entered into alliance with Cyaxares and destroyed Assyrian empire.|
|Nabu-kudurri-usur(Nebuchadnezzar II)||605 – 562 BC||Chaldean king. Defeated the Egyptians and Assyrians at Carchemish. Is associated with Daniel in the Bible.|
|Amel-Marduk (Evil-Merodach)||562 – 560 BC||Released Jeconiah after 37 years in captivity.|
|Nergal-shar-usur(Nergal-sharezer/Neriglissar)||560 – 556 BC||Son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar II. Murdered Amel-Marduk.|
|Labashi-Marduk||556 BC||Son of Neriglissar. Murdered after being deemed unfit to rule.|
|Nabu-na’id(Nabonidus)||556 – 539 BC||Last Mesopotamian king of Babylon, originated in Harran in Assyria. Was not a Chaldean, often left rule to his son Belshazzar.|
In 539 BC, Babylon was captured by Cyrus the Great. His son was later crowned formally as King of Babylonia. This list uses the Greek names of the Achaemenid Persian kings.
|Cyrus the Great||539-530 BC||Conquered Babylon into the Persian Empire.|
|Cambyses II||530 – 522 BC||Son of Cyrus the Great.|
|Bardiya||522 BC||Son of Cyrus the Great (possible an usurper named Gaumata)
Reigned only for seven months.
|Darius I the Great||521 – 486 BC||Son-in-law of Cyrus the Great and son of Hystaspes.|
|Xerxes I the Great||485 – 465 BC||Son of Darius the Great and grandson of Cyrus the Great.
Maybe the Ahasuerus mentioned in the Book of Esther.
|Artaxerxes I Longimanus||465 – 424 BC||Son of Xerxes the Great.
Mentioned in the book of Ezra and the book of Nehemiah.
|Xerxes II||424 BC||Son of Artaxerxes Longimanus, reigned only for forty-five days.|
|Sogdianus||424 – 423 BC||Illegitimate half-brother and rival of Xerxes II.|
|Darius II Nothus||423 – 405 BC||Illegitimate half-brother and rival of Xerxes II.|
|Artaxerxes II Mnemon||404 – 359 BC||Son of Darius Nothus, mentioned by Xenophon.|
|Artaxerxes III Ochus||358 – 338 BC||Son of Artaxerxes Mnenon.|
|Artaxerxes IV Arses||338 – 336 BC||Son of Artaxerxes Ochus.|
|Darius III Codomannus||336 – 330 BC||Great-Grandson of Darius Nothus.|
|Alexander III the Great||330 – 323 BC|
|Philip III Arrhideus||323 – 317 BC|
|Alexander IV||317 – 309 BC|